I am Dr. Jane K. Lwoyero, a Senior Veterinary Officer working with the Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries, State department of Livestock in the Directorate of Veterinary Services.
I hold a Master of Science in Veterinary Public Health from the University of Nairobi. I have undertaken further training in Governance and food safety in International food chains and Research on “Antibiotic residues in poultry products and in situ selection for antibiotic resistant bacteria” under the Borlaug Fellowship Program.
I am responsible for implementation of the AMR activities in the Veterinary Public Health Section, the residue monitoring plan for veterinary drugs and contaminants in foods of animal origin; Control of imports and exports of food of animal origin; Audit of milk and meat processing facilities; and Also represent the Directorate of Veterinary Services on the Milk Technical Working group at the Kenya Bureau of Standards.
I am the AMR focal person in the Ministry of Agriculture and a member of the secretariat of the Agriculture Sector Technical Working Group on Amu and AMR. I’m also a member of the National Antimicrobial Stewardship Advisory Committee.
AMU and AMR in the Dairy Sector in Kenya Dairy farming is practised by small-scale holders, (80% of the milk produced in Kenya), and large-scale farming (20%).
Types of dairy farming in Kenya are;
1. Commercial dairy farming that produce high dairy yields.
2. Domestic dairy farming; practiced by keeping traditional cattle for domestic milk consumption. Many domestic cattle keepers are now selling their milk to the local markets.
The current dairy cattle population is estimated at four million. Total milk production is estimated at about 4.8 million tonnes – cow milk estimated at 4.5 million tonnes, goatmilk 150,000 tonnes and camel about 50,000 tonnes.
Antimicrobials are used in dairy production to treat sick animals but are also widely used in healthy animals to prevent disease. Bovine mastitis is the most frequent disease in Kenyan dairy herds and is treated using intramammary or intravenous infusions.
The mean antimicrobial consumption in Kenya’s livestock has been estimated to be 14,594±1457 kg per year between 1995 and 1999. The distribution of antibiotics classes being; 7975 kg (54.65%) of tetracyclines, 3103.96 kg (21.27%) of sulfonamides and 954.5 kg (6.56%) of aminoglycosides, 905 kg (6.20%) of b-lactams, 94 kg (0.64%) of quinolones, 35 kg (0.24%) of macrolides and 24 kg (0.16%) of others (tiamulin).
Studies report significant difference in overall mean resistance profile between large- (7.1%) and small-scale farm (14.7%) isolates for Staph. Aureus . In mastistogenic bacteria isolated from dairy cows in Kenya and their and microbial sensitivity, S. aureus and S. agalactiae were most sensitive to gentamycin and norfloxacin, and least sensitive to cotrimoxazole and ampicillin. There’s need for research into spread of antimicrobial resistance between populations of bacteria in dairy slurry in Kenya and coordinated surveillance, monitoring and reporting of AMU and AMR in the dairy sector in the country.